Saturday, March 17, 2012

ICO Matters: Now Online!

ICO Matters: Now Online!

Visualizing 3D Objects from 2D Cross Sectional Images Displayed "In-Situ" versus "Ex-Situ"

Visualizing 3D Objects from 2D Cross Sectional Images Displayed "In-Situ" versus "Ex-Situ"

The present research investigates how mental visualization of a 3D object from 2D cross sectional images is influenced by displacing the images from the source object, ..... These findings suggest that "in-situ" displays may be useful in clinical practice by reducing error and facilitating the ability of radiologists to visualize 3D anatomy from cross sectional images....


Friday, March 16, 2012

Transfer of Learning between 2D and 3D Sources during Infancy: Informing Theory and Practice

Transfer of Learning between 2D and 3D Sources during Infancy: Informing Theory and Practice

The ability to transfer learning across contexts is an adaptive skill that develops rapidly during early childhood. Learning from television is a specific instance of transfer of learning between a two-dimensional (2D) representation and a three-dimensional (3D) object. Understanding the conditions under which young children might accomplish this particular kind of transfer is important because by 2 years of age 90% of US children are viewing television on a daily basis. Recent research shows that children can imitate actions presented on television using the corresponding real-world objects, but this same research also shows that children learn less from television than they do from live demonstrations until they are at least 3 years old; termed the "video deficit effect". At present, there is no coherent theory to account for the video deficit effect; how learning is disrupted by this change in context is poorly understood. The aims of the present review are: (1) to review the conditions under which children transfer learning between 2D images and 3D objects during early childhood and (2) to integrate developmental theories of memory processing into the transfer of learning from media literature using Hayne's (2004) developmental representational flexibility account. The review will conclude that studies on the transfer of learning between 2D and 3D sources have important theoretical implications for general developmental theories of cognitive development, and in particular the development of a flexible representational system, as well as policy implications for early education regarding the potential use and limitations of media as effective teaching tools during early childhood.

Thursday, March 15, 2012

Use Your QR Reader for info on the International Brain Injury Meeting in Scotland

Two- vs. Three-Dimensional Presentation of Mental Rotation Tasks: Sex Differences and Effects of Training on Performance and Brain Activation

Two- vs. Three-Dimensional Presentation of Mental Rotation Tasks: Sex Differences and Effects of Training on Performance and Brain Activation

The well-documented sex difference in mental rotation favoring males has been shown to emerge only for 2-dimensional presentations of 3-dimensional objects, but not with actual 3-dimensional objects or with virtual reality presentations of 3-dimensional objects. Training studies using computer games with mental rotation-related content have demonstrated training effects on mental rotation performance. Here, we studied the combined effect of a two-week mental rotation (MR) training on 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional presentations of a classic Shepard-Metzler task (presented in a pretest-training-posttest design) and their accompanying cortical activation patterns assessed via EEG....... Analysis of one performance parameter ... displayed only main effects of dimensionality ... and of training ..., but no significant sex difference. Analysis of the other performance parameter (scores) in the MR task revealed a sex difference favoring males that first, appeared only in the 2D version, but not in the 3D version of the MR task and, secondly, diminished after training. .... [an] increase in neural efficiency with training emerged for males in both 2D and 3D conditions, whereas for females this ...was found only in the 3D but not with the 2D version of the MR task...


Rosenbloom Rounds at ICO

Dr. Rosenbloom (left) with the blog's author!
The Illinois State Chapter invites you to attend

Rosenbloom Rounds

Wednesday, March 28, 2012   6:30 to 8:30 pm
Illinois College of Optometry/ Illinois Eye Institute
3241 S. Michigan Ave. Chicago, Il 60616
Adams Center  

Please join the Illinois State Chapter for food, drinks, and an evening of thought provoking cases.  Additional cases welcome.  We will be joined by an honored guest - 
Academy President, Dr. Karla Zadnik
Please RSVP to Mary Roberts at

Tuesday, March 13, 2012

Another risk of strabismus surgery? Increased risk of learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because of exposure to anesthesia.

My colleague, Dr. Mini Randhaw, from Vancouver, BC in Canada, recently wrote about the pitfalls associated with strabismus surgery. She noted on her blog that:

.....Strabismus - a condition where the eye abnormally turns in or out due to one or more of the eye muscles malfunctioning - is often treated with surgery in which the properly functioning muscle is cut and re-attached so that it balances with the malfunctioning muscle, hopefully making the eyes look straight. 

Strabismus surgery has well many well-known risks and complications.  However, there is a growing body of research that is causing even more worry for strabismus  surgery patients because these patients are often very young and must frequently endure repeat surgeries, which means repeat exposure to anesthesia and therein lies the risk.  ....

Comments: As you know, I have often wondered why ophthalmologists (and even optometrists) believe that the 1st option for strabismus is to have surgery. Surgery outcomes for strabismus tend to be awful, require multiple surgeries and have poor success rates. For some patients strabismus surgery is an option....but for most surgery should only be considered after a program of optometric vision therapy has been conducted. 

Please take a look at the following:

The Number of Placebo Controlled, Double Blind, Prospective, and Randomized Strabismus Surgery Outcome Clinical Trials: None!

and Strabismus Surgery Outcomes       Click here to read all of Dr. Randhaw's comments. DM

Monday, March 12, 2012

American Conference on Pediatric Cerebral Visual Impairment

Go to
 for more information.

Optometry & Vision Development vol 43 #1: Developmental Optometry

In the next couple weeks, Optometry & Vision Development vol 43 #1 will become available first online and then in hard copy.This is an open access journal so all are welcome to download and read great articles like...

Watch for an announcement as to when this journal will be available....

Please note that there is a definite conflict of interest here because I am the editor of this particular journal! Optometry  & Vision Development is an official of the College of Optometrists in Vision Development. DM

Sunday, March 11, 2012

Amblyopia Can be Treated in Adults! (No duh!!)

Hussain Z, Webb BS, Astle AT, McGraw PV.Perceptual learning reduces crowding in amblyopia and in the normal periphery. J Neurosci. 2012 Jan 11;32(2):474-80.

Amblyopia is a developmental visual disorder of cortical origin, characterized by crowding and poor acuity in central vision of the affected eye. .... We trained a group of adult human amblyopes on a crowded letter identification task to assess whether the crowding problem can be ameliorated. .... perceptual learning reduced the deleterious effects of crowding in amblyopia and in the normal periphery. The results support the effectiveness of plasticity-based approaches for improving vision in adult amblyopes and suggest experience-dependent effects on the cortical substrates of crowding....

Comments: I am thrilled that our scientists have discovered "perceptual learning"....if they would only use the correct terminology for treating these vision disorders (optometric vision therapy) I would be even more thrilled. It would also be appropriate if these studies would occasionally credit particular functional/developmental/behavioral optometry with  using neuroplasticity to treat amblyopia for decades in all of our patients. (Don't hold your breath) DM

The European Academy of Optometry and Optics (EAOO) Sets Program for Dublin 2012

The European Academy of Optometry and Optics (EAOO) Sets Program for Dublin 2012

...The European Academy of Optometry and Optics (EAOO) has published the program and scheduled speakers for its next conference in Dublin, scheduled to take place from April 20 to 22, 2012. The event will bring together key decision-makers, influencers, educators, researchers and students from across Europe to discuss and share the latest research and best-practice relating to optics, optometry and vision sciences.... Click here to find out more about the EAOO.