Saturday, January 30, 2010

British doctor rebuked over research linking vaccine and autism

...The General Medical Council, Britain's medical regulator, found that Andrew Wakefield acted unethically in the way he collected blood samples from children and in his failure to disclose payments from lawyers representing parents who believed the vaccinations for measles, mumps and rubella -- given as a single shot, referred to as the MMR vaccine -- had hurt their kids.

The regulator also concluded that Wakefield acted with "callous disregard" by conducting invasive tests on children that were not in their best medical interests....

Comments: This one individual may have caused more harm and worry than any other doc/researcher in recent history. This is very sad. DM

Vision Therapy Changed My Life

Check out the Vision Therapy Changed My Life ... Facebook page....great people.... telling great stories of success....

Beginning to read at 74 years old

If you thought you were going to die and had only one wish, what would you wish for? A local woman was faced with that scenario, and she wished for something most of us take for granted....

Friday, January 29, 2010

Who Knew? Bifocals Retard Myopia After All

A good study in Archives demonstrates that executive bifocals (+1.50) do retard myopia in fast-progressing myopes among children. After 2 years, axial length was .62 and myopia about -.50 more in the single vision compared to bifocal group- statistically significant, and if true over several years, very important to public health. Time to re-think bifocals and apologize to the optometrists.

Comments: When I posted this earlier I forgot to point out ophthalmology's apology....well, at least one of my ophthalmology colleagues is taking another view of bifocals for myopia reduction. I thank him for that! DM

Study Says Lead May Be the Culprit in ADHD

ADHD, or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is among the costliest of behavioral disorders. Its combination of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity leads to accidental injuries, school failure, substance abuse, antisocial behavior and more. Yet despite nearly a century of study, the disorder’s roots remain mysterious....

Comments: Genetics, the environment AND dysfunction of the binocular vision system may all play a role in ADHD. Type in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the search box on the upper left to see additional research. Click on title for more about this research. DM

Thursday, January 28, 2010

Strabismus: Implications for Development

...Strabismus & Amblyopia Affect Spatial Relations and Balance Usually, such as in the holiday photo, cosmetic aspect of misalignment is obvious. Even more important are the effects on function and vision, because strabismus disrupts the ability to orient oneself in space. A good number of the eye’s neural fibers bring information to the body’s balance system. If they deliver inaccurate information, the person’s sense of where he is in space can be compromised.

The Psychological Effects of Strabismus - Strabismus and double vision can adversely affect social-emotional development. A child who is disoriented in space experiences himself and his environment as unstable and unpredictable. He may grow increasingly inward, become belligerent or demonstrate sensory defensiveness, all characteristics of “autism”...

VT: Convergence Insufficiency

Effects of the Internet on patient consultations

Physicians are placed in a delicate situation
when confronted with information that suggests
approaches or diagnoses that they did not propose.
Certainly when patients arrive with their own information,
they are suggesting a new type of relationship
with the physician by openly challenging the
traditional authority of the health care provider. This
becomes a potential source of uneasiness, and sometimes
even conflict, between the 2 parties because
each is breaking the usual conversation rules that
exist in a service relationship. Typically, the person
seeking advice does not suggest his or her own solutions
at the same time. Challenging medical authority
is not new; what is new is that it is being challenged
at the time of the consultation, which might alter how
the meeting unfolds.

Commnets: I have found that most patients that I talk to are much better informed...and know (in some instances) more than I may about a certain topic...especially if it's about their child. This is a good thing. The MDs ego should not get in the way....DM

Bifocals may help slow nearsightedness in children whose eyesight is deteriorating rapidly.

Bifocals may help slow nearsightedness in children whose eyesight is deteriorating rapidly.

The Wall Street Journal (1/26, Singer-Vine) reports that, according to findings reported in the Archives of Ophthalmology, in children whose eyesight is worsening rapidly, bifocals may help slow nearsightedness better than single-vision glasses. Researchers found that compared to children who wore single-vision glasses, those who wore standard bifocals needed less subsequent correction. The Journal notes, however, that it remains unclear whether wearing bifocals slows nearsightedness permanently rather than only during childhood.

New PubMed Journals

International Journal of Otolaryngology
ISSN: 1687-9201 (print) 1687-921X (electronic)
Archive includes: v. 2009(2009).
Note: There is no embargo delay for this title.

International Journal of Rheumatology
ISSN: 1687-9260 (print) 1687-9279 (electronic)
Archive includes: v. 2009(2009).
Note: There is no embargo delay for this title.

Journal of Biophysics
ISSN: 1687-8000 (print) 1687-8019 (electronic)
Archive includes: v. 2008(2008).
Note: There is no embargo delay for this title.

Journal of Toxicology
ISSN: 1687-8191 (print) 1687-8205 (electronic)
Archive includes: v. 2009(2009).
Note: There is no embargo delay for this title.

Exotropic Drift and Ocular Alignment After Surgical Correction for Intermittent Exotropia

...The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 3 years. Although most patients had exotropic drift, this drift was greater in patients with initial esotropia (86.7%) and orthophoria (70.0%) compared to patients with exotropia (26.1%). Motor success was achieved in 29 (60.4%) patients. There was no statistical difference between ocular alignment at 1 week postoperatively and final motor success (P = .782). There was good correlation between ocular alignment at 1 week and 6 months postoperatively ( = 0.585, P < .001). Age and preoperative deviation were not found to be associated with motor success....

Comments: OK so if I am reading these results correctly...most patients went exo after surgery...about 40% did NOT achieve motor success! So why are we so quick to refer for strabismus surgery? DM

Recognition Acuity, Grating Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, and Visual Fields in 6-Year-Old Children

The results provide additional normative monocular data on visual function in 6-year-old children and indicate that their thresholds are less than those of adults for distance recognition VA, grating VA, and contrast sensitivity, but similar to those of adults for white-sphere kinetic perimetry.

New class of brain-protecting drugs emerging

Researchers have identified a compound that mimics one of the brain's own growth factors and can protect brain cells against damage in several animal models of neurological disease.

7,8-dihydroxyflavone is a member of the flavonoid family of chemicals, which are abundant in fruits and vegetables. The compound's selective effects suggest that it could be the founder of a new class of brain-protecting drugs.

Children with suspected development problems may not get needed referrals, study shows

...Many pediatricians score high on screening their patients for developmental delays, but barely make a passing grade in referring children with suspected delays for further testing or treatment...

Comments: OK parents....when the MD drops the have to follow up...ask for a referral if your doc does not recommend one to you. DM

Honey for acute cough in children

Cough can impact on quality of life, cause anxiety and affect sleep for parents and children. For this reason an immediate remedy is usually sought by both the care giver and the recipient. Cochrane reviews have assessed the effectiveness of over-the-counter cough medications but none have studied honey as a cough relief. A systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of honey for reducing acute cough symptoms due to upper respiratory tract infections in children would be useful. A review of one small randomised controlled trial showed that honey was significantly better than no treatment for the relief of cough, reducing bothersome cough, improving child's sleep; but no better than 'no treatment' in reducing the severity of cough and parent's sleep.

Breaking Up With Your Doctor

...Breaking up with your doctor is not a choice most people take lightly, but there may come a time when it's the single best decision for you and your health. Some patients have had complaints that have been mounting over the years. Others decide to fire their doctor after one heated episode - perhaps because of a missed diagnosis...

Comments: I recently broke up with my PCP because he acted like a little child...we had a disagreement about a missed appointment....when I tried to agree with him that missing an appointment is not a good thing to do....he walked out of the room telling me that when I would let him talk....that he'd come back in....well, I fired him right then and there! Anyone who won't let me agree with them ...'s just too weird! DM

Coffee Break Boosts Memory

A coffee break after an important meeting or class may be just the thing your brain needs to digest new information and improve memory....A new study suggests that resting while awake aids in memory consolidation and improves memory recall, much like getting a good night’s sleep has been shown to do...."Taking a coffee break after class can actually help you retain that information you just learned," researcher Lila Davachi, PhD, assistant professor of psychology at the Center for Neural Science at New York University, says in a news release. "Your brain wants you to tune out other tasks so you can tune in to what you just learned."...

Comments: Dear Dr. Daum, Dean at Illinois College of Optometry....when I'm taking a coffee break I REALLY am working...honest! DM

Wednesday, January 27, 2010

Intelligence In Young Children Is Not Influenced By Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Omega 3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are found in high concentrations in the brain and accumulate during the spurt in brain growth that occurs between the last trimester of pregnancy and the first year of life. Studies in animals have shown that a lack of DHA during periods of rapid brain growth may lead to problems in brain development but trials of the effect of DHA-fortified formula on brain function in babies have produced conflicting results....

Mixed-Handed Children More Likely To Have Mental Health, Language And Scholastic Problems

...Around one in every 100 people is mixed-handed. The study looked at nearly 8,000 children, 87 of whom were mixed-handed, and found that mixed-handed 7 and 8-year old children were twice as likely as their right-handed peers to have difficulties with language and to perform poorly in school. ...

Motor Deficits Can Persist Even After What Appears To Be A Full Recovery Following Traumatic Brain Injuries

Even after regaining normal walking speed, traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims have not necessarily recovered all their locomotor functions...

Older Brains Make Good Use Of 'Useless' Information

A new study has found promising evidence that the older brain's weakened ability to filter out irrelevant information may actually give aging adults a memory advantage over their younger counterparts. ...

Virtual-Reality Baseballs Give Researchers Insight Into Long-Standing Mystery

While baseball fans still rank "The Catch" by Willie Mays in the 1954 World Series as one of the greatest baseball moments of all times, scientists see the feat as more of a puzzle: How does an outfielder get to the right place at the right time to catch a fly ball? ...

High Rates Of Birth Defects Found In Autistic Children

Nearly two-thirds of the children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders recorded in the National Birth Defect Registry (NBDR) also suffer from structural birth defects, according the national nonprofit, Birth Defect Research for Children (BDRC). The group reported that most of the defects affect the face, head and central nervous systems of newborns....

Communication Problems In The Brain

...For brain cells to communicate, the contacts to each other must function. The protein molecule neuroligin-1 plays an important role in this as it stimulates the necessary maturation processes at the contact sites (synapses) of the nerves. A synaptic maturation disorder is possibly involved in the development of autism...

Attention span of a fly

Attention Drug Drives Memory

Scientists at the Queensland Brain Institute have found a way to measure the attention span of a fly, which could lead to further advances in the understanding of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism in humans. ...

Physicians Pay Attention To ADHD On College Campuses

Can't study. Can't focus. Can't remember what I was supposed to do next. I've got to do this. No, I've got to do that. What was I doing?

In college, students with attention deficit/hyperactive disorder face an array of challenges-long days and nights of classes, studying and activities, all of which require increasing amounts of concentration....

Comments: No where does this article mention vision problems as a source for the behaviors of ADHD...for instance:

Academic Behaviors in Children with Convergence Insufficiency with and without Parent-Reported ADHD.
Rouse M, Borsting E, Mitchell GL, Kulp MT, Scheiman M, Amster D, Coulter R, Fecho G, Gallaway M; The CITT Study Group.Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Sep 7

Oculomotor performance identifies underlying cognitive deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Loe IM, Feldman HM, Yasui E, Luna B. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009 Apr;48(4):431-40.

The relationship between convergence insufficiency and ADHD.Granet DB, Gomi CF, Ventura R, Miller-Scholte A. Strabismus. 2005 Dec;13(4):163-8.

Nearpoint phorias after nearwork predict ADHD symptoms in college students.Wilmer JB, Buchanan GM.Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Aug;86(8):971-8.

Headache Attributable to Disorders of the Eye

Sensory innervation to the eye and periocular area arises from the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. Thus, ocular, orbital, and systemic disorders may produce head pain with ocular signs and symptoms. Whereas some of these entities have characteristic diagnostic features, others mimic primary headache disorders such as migraine and cluster headache. This article reviews common ocular and neuro-ophthalmic conditions that are accompanied by pain in or near the eye.
Homoeopathy is often advocated for fibromyalgia (FM) and many FM patients use it. To critically evaluate all randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of homoeopathy as a treatment for FM, six electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant studies. Data extraction and the assessment of the methodological quality of all included studies were done by two independent reviewers. Four RCTs were found, including two feasibility studies. Three studies were placebo-controlled. None of the trials was without serious flaws. Invariably, their results suggested that homoeopathy was better than the control interventions in alleviating the symptoms of FM. Independent replications are missing. Even though all RCTs suggested results that favour homoeopathy, important caveats exist. Therefore, the effectiveness of homoeopathy as a symptomatic treatment for FM remains unproven.

Higher Prevalence of Psychopathological Symptoms in Adolescents With Headache. A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

...Previously reported associations between headache and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents could be confirmed, but might vary with type of headache. As psychopathological symptoms may be a precursor for manifest psychiatric disorders, adolescents particularly with migraine and miscellaneous headache appear to be a vulnerable population....

Vitamin D and the Immune System

Evidence of the role of vitamin D in the regulation of T and B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and keratinocytes continues to accumulate and provides a link between vitamin D and many autoimmune diseases, including Crohn’s disease, juvenile diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. Considering the influence of vitamin D on the immune system, it may have potential as a treatment for immune-mediated diseases, even if additional research is required to better quantify dosage. But the biggest obstacle to its clinical use is its potent hypercalcemic effect. The calcium status of the host may influence the effect of vitamin D on immunity.

Eastern States Optometric Congress

The 2010 Eastern States Optometric Congress will be held on Saturday and Sunday, April 24 and 25, in White Plains, NY. White Plains is a stone's throw from Manhattan, accessible by public transportation. ESOC has been conveniently scheduled for Saturday afternoon and Sunday.

The program features several outstanding speakers and topics:

Dr. Allen Cohen: The Impact of the Visual System on Vestibular and Balance disorders
and VT cases from Diagnoses to Coding

Dr. Len Press: Applying Research in Amblyopia Therapy to Clinical Practice and
The Optometric Evaluation and Management of Children With Reading Difficulties

and Drs. Paul and Ira Bernstein: Movement and Vision: An Integrated Approach to Vision Therapy

Saturday night offers a COVD study group discussion!

Eastern States is presented under the auspices of the Optometric Extension Program Foundation

click on title for more information.

Hope to see many of you in attendance!
Samantha Slotnick, OD, FAAO, FCOVD
Exhibits Coordinator
Eastern States Optometric Congress

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

Don’t Love 3D? It Might Be Your Eyes

...Your television may be 3D ready, and your Blu-ray player may be 3D ready but the College of Optometrists warns that you might not be.

So you saw Avatar but weren’t blown away by the 3D effects. 3D televisions haven’t impressed you, and you’re generally blasé about viewing anything three dimensionally. It could be that you’re a viewer with a defined sense of taste, or, according to the College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD), it could be your eyes.

The technology behind 3D movies involves two images being shown on the screen. The glasses you wear make sure only one eye sees each image, and your brain puts those two together to create a 3D effect. According to the COVD there is a significant part of the population that is unable to view 3D due to vision problems. ...


ICO in Washington
Drs. Arol Augsburger, Vince Brandys, Stephanie Johnson-Brown and Pete Kehoe traveled to Washington, D.C., this week to discuss their support of the Schakowsky Medicaid provision in HR 3962 and its inclusion in the final health care reform package. The Schakowsky provision includes language that would require the coverage of services of optometrists.
The ICO delegation met with U.S. Representatives of Illinois Bill Foster, Jerry Costello, Phil Hare, Bobby Rush, Danny Davis, Debbie Halvorson and Mike Quigley. Additionally, they had the opportunity to meet with health care aides for Reps. Jan Schakowsky and Jesse Jackson

ICO shares expertise with Sun-Times columnist
Don't be startled if 'Avatar' makes you nauseated: 3-D effects could leave you feeling like you ate a bad oyster
Chicago Sun-Times, January 20, 2010
…Twenty-seven percent of those responding to an unscientific reader poll told the New York Daily News last week that "Avatar" gave them a headache and 16 percent reported "a slight feeling of nausea." While those numbers probably exaggerate the true picture, as the people who suffered ill effects would be more motivated to respond, they help convince me I'm not the only one who turned green watching those blue humanoids flying around Pandora.
The phenomenon has caught the attention of the nation's optometrists, with one group of specialists even issuing an alert last week about some of the possible underlying causes, while also educating the public to the fact that many people have vision problems that will prevent them from seeing the 3-D effects at all. In my case, the symptoms were nausea accompanied by a headache. The headache went away fairly quickly. The nausea lingered for hours…
Dr. Dominick Maino, professor of pediatric/binocular vision at the Illinois College of Optometry, told me it only follows that individuals with an extreme sensitivity to motion would face the same difficulties when the big screen so closely approximates the real world. "It has to do with your peripheral vision and your system that controls your balance," Maino said. He suggested some of the people experiencing problems might be candidates for vision therapy.

IEI Takes to the Airwaves
January 2010
The Illinois Eye Institute is sharing “Eye on Your Health” tips on Chicago’s WVON 1690AM in an effort to educate radio listeners about eye care topics and common vision problems. IEI’s Dr. Valerie Kattouf plays host to the “Eye on Your Health” tips that will air over the next several weeks and addresses topics including Diabetes, Computer Vision Syndrome and pediatric eye examinations.

ICO’s Dr. Sandy Block featured front and center
AOA News, December 2009
The American Public Health Association (APHA) recently had its annual meeting in Philadelphia, where more than 12,000 public health professionals from around the world met and addressed top public health challenges. Dr. Sandy Block joined past officers of the Vision Care Section to celebrate 30 years of the VCS.

Infant Eye Exams

Baby’s first Christmas, baby’s first step, baby’s first tooth… Parents love celebrating all those firsts with their new little one! ....Did you know a baby should also have a first eye exam?

Comments: This blog is a must read for all parents. Do it now! DM

Who Knew? Bifocals Retard Myopia After All

Comments: For the folks at EyeDoc News Ophthalmology Online....Who knew? Functional optometrists have known this since the 1930's that's just never bothered to listen....DM

Can You Train Your Eyes To Process Info Faster?

...Colorado's Michelle Roark has been dazzling judges and audiences alike at the Olympic Games in Torino. She's a world-class dual-bump mogul skier who admits her secret weapon is in Denver at a place that may improve your child's reading, help your spouse make gains at work and even advance your golf game.

The place behind Roark's success is Accelerated Visual Performance....

Monday, January 25, 2010

Crayola's Law: The Number of Crayon Colors Doubles Every 28 Years - GOOD Blog - GOOD

Crayola's Law: The Number of Crayon Colors Doubles Every 28 Years - GOOD Blog - GOOD

Sports eye injuries

Did you know? Approximately 72 percent of sports-related eye injuries occur in people younger than 25 years and approximately 43 percent occur in children younger than 15 years. For additional information regarding sports vision, please visit

Working on depth perception during diaper changing

Infants and Contact Lenses...It is possible!!

Vertical and Horizontal Tracking - motor skills activities

Interacting with your low vision newborn: Framing

COVD Call for Papers/Posters

Call for Papers

The College of Optometrists in Vision Development is soliciting abstracts for papers and posters to be presented at the COVD 40th Annual Meeting, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico. Any person wishing to make a presentation is invited to submit a proposal.

All abstracts will be reviewed by the Research Committee and will be judged on the basis of overall quality, completion of required information, relevance to behavioral and functional vision, subject matter, innovation, and attention to key questions in the field. Proposals may include research results, case studies, or new and innovative diagnostic procedures or treatment techniques.

Abstract Submission Application

Abstract Submission Guidelines

Deadline for abstract submission is June 11, 2010.

APHA Meeting

Time is Running Out!!
Only two weeks remain to submit your abstract to the most important public health event of the year!

The American Public Health Association is receiving abstracts for the 2010 Annual Meeting and Exposition to be held November 6-10, in Denver, CO. Submit your abstract to join hundreds of your colleagues in presenting research in the field of Public Health. The deadline for submission of abstracts range from February 1 thru February 5, 2010 depending on the Section, SPIG, Caucus or Forum to which you wish to submit.

From 2-D to 3-D Sight: How One Scientist Learned to See

...In my late forties, I consulted a developmental optometrist who prescribed for me a program of optometric vision therapy designed to stabilize my gaze. Since I was cross-eyed, I looked at visual targets with one eye and turned in the other. The vision therapy procedures provided me with the feedback I needed to know where in space each eye was looking. With this feedback, I learned to aim the two eyes at the same location in space at the same time and, to my astonishment, began to see in 3D. Further therapy taught me how to integrate my new 3D views with my former ways of judging depth and distance....

Comments: All may benefit from optometric vision matter your age. DM

Vision therapy helps people of all ages

"From him expressing that he felt like his brains was stupid and he just didn't want anything to do with any academic task, to now be willing to sit down and do those things, and actually do them for fun--it's just amazing," says Amy Clements, mother......Through, doctors can help get you back on track. Sometimes it's through fun activities, and maybe even some silly ones. But all said, they say it gets the job done.

Sunday, January 24, 2010

3-D headache? 'Avatar' special effects might not be for everyone

...The other reason is a little simpler: your eye problem may be intermittent, meaning you vacillate from normal vision to a slight problem in alignment that throws you off for a time....

Comments: Although this article gave pretty good info....there is NO such thing as a "slight problem in alignment". These slight problems cause big discomfort and interfere with reading, sports, and yes, even watching AVATAR! See an optometrist today. Go to for more info.

Missing out on 3-D magic

...People with impaired binocular vision from crossed or lazy eyes can't appreciate the new standard in 3-D technology ...

3D film trend prompts eyestrain complaints

...For two disparate images to be seen and fused there needs to be normal binocular function. Someone with poor vision in one eye will tend to see just one of the images which, though unlikely to cause confusion, will not offer the full 3D experience. If someone has a decompensated phoria and struggles to maintain comfortable binocular vision, ...they may experience a degree of eyestrain or headache or even transient double vision when viewing the film. Were they to take off their glasses the film would appear distorted as the two disparate images would become noticeable.

It may be appropriate for eye care practitioners to warn those without comfortable binocular vision that they may either risk some headache or visual stress, or simply not appreciate any 3D effect....

Optometrist caution people with vision problems could have bad side-effects watching movies in 3D problems that otherwise might not be noticeable can cause a person discomfort while viewing 3D images,...

Concussion Label Can be Confusing

...Whether a clinician calls a mild traumatic brain injury a concussion or not appears to influence how serious the injury is considered to be...

Can We Trust The Results Of Research Done On Children?

...Flawed medical research could lead to children receiving treatment that either doesn't work or is harmful. ...

The Transition Between Not Seeing And Seeing: A Clear Threshold That Must Be Crossed For Perception To Occur

...How do the visual images we experience, which have no tangible existence, arise out of physical processes in the brain? New research at the Weizmann Institute of Science provided evidence, for the first time, that an 'ignition' of intense neural activity underlies the experience of seeing....

Avatar 3 D Images Help To Identify Vision Problems

Disconnect Between Brain Regions In ADHD

...The brains of the children with ADHD apparently prepare to attend to upcoming stimuli differently than do typically developing children...

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders is an open access journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles in all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal and associated disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.

Survival Rates Vary with Congenital Anomalies

...For specific conditions, the 20-year survival rates were as follows:

* Orofacial clefts, 97.6% (95% CI 95.9 to 98.6)
* Urinary system, 93.2% (95% CI 91.6 to 94.5)
* Cardiovascular system, 89.5% (95% CI 88.4 to 90.6)
* Digestive system, 83.2% (95% CI 79.8 to 86)
* Chromosomal anomalies, 79.1% (95% CI 76.6 to 81.3)
* Nervous system, 66.2% (95% CI 61.5 to 70.5)

Are Physicians Too Quick to Medicate ADHD?

.... Physicians may be too quick to medicate children suspected of having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)....between 1990 and 1998, the number of children and adults diagnosed with ADHD rose from 900,000 to nearly 5 million....The increase coincides with a broader trend toward prescribing stimulants for its treatment. Since 1990, prescriptions have risen by 700%, ...

Comments:This article suggests that psychotherapy should be used.....but not once noted that learning related vision problems, like convergence insufficiency, could cause ADHD symptoms. Go to for more info..