Saturday, July 4, 2015

Children with Down syndrome benefit from bifocals as evidenced by increased compliance with spectacle wear.

Children with Down syndrome benefit from bifocals as evidenced by increased compliance with spectacle wear.

"....In the 27 bifocal children, all had poor accommodation on dynamic retinoscopy. ....the addition of bifocal segments improved compliance with spectacle wear in children with Down syndrome....


Comments: All children with Down syndrome should have an assessment of accommodation as a basic part of any eye examination. The majority of children with Down syndrome will require a bifocal. This study clearly shows acceptance of a multifocal design by those with this syndrome. Many other studies have demonstrated a significant accommodative  problem within those who have Down syndrome, it is important to prescribe a bifocal for the majority of these individuals. 

See Woodhouse M. Maino D. Down Syndrome. In Taub M, Bartuccio M, Maino D. (Eds) Visual Diagnosis and Care of the Patient with Special Needs; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. New York, NY;2012:31-40.  for a complete review.

DM

Numerical and area comparison abilities in Down syndrome.

Numerical and area comparison abilities in Down syndrome.

"...Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have great difficulty in learning mathematics. In recent years, research has focused on investigating whether precursors of later mathematical competence, such as estimating and comparing numerosities, are preserved in DS. Although studies have suggested a strong relationship between the ability to compare continuous quantities (e.g., area of an object) and that of comparing numerosities, it is still unknown whether this ability is preserved in DS. ..... All participants performed two eye-tracking tasks: an Area Comparison Task (ACT) and a Number Comparison Task (NCT)..... in general, the performance of the three groups was better in the ACT than in the NCT. Critically, performance of individuals with DS in both tasks was consistent with that of individuals with the same Memtal Age. The study shows that the abilities to compare area and numerosity are both preserved in DS, and that individuals with this syndrome,... show better performance in comparing area than number...."