"...Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Intra-uterine exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is associated with increased risks of growth and neurodevelopmental problems during childhood and later life. Few studies have focused on visual difficulties in children in the context of maternal smoking during pregnancy. .... there were higher rates of strabismus, refractive errors and retinopathy among children of women who smoked during pregnancy. These findings suggest that fetal exposure to cigarette smoke is a significant risk factor for visual problems during later life and that certain visual faculties, such as the intraocular muscles and retinal neurons, are more affected than others. ...."
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