Saturday, July 19, 2008

Revealed: How men and women really do have different brains

...The saying goes that men are from Mars and women are from Venus, but scientists believe the real explanation for differences between the sexes lies in the structure of their brains....

Friday, July 18, 2008

The efficacy of vision therapy for convergence excess.

...Vision therapy was successful in enhancing negative fusional vergence and eliminating symptoms in the vast majority of patients with convergence excess and should be considered an effective treatment for this condition....

Comments: This is an older article about CE....but with all the hoopla about CI...I wanted to remind everyone....that convergence excess is quite treatable with optometric vision therapy as well.... DM

Convergence insufficiency in brain-injured patients

...Clinical investigation of vergence function in 26 traumatically brain-injured patients examined as early as possible after trauma revealed disturbances in over a third of the examinees. ... Convergence insufficiency was associated with longer periods of coma ..., presence of cognitive disturbances ... and patients' failing to find work in the open market .... ...This paper describes the close relationship between vergence state and over-all rehabilitation outcome as evaluated by patients' occupational status.

Botox Lawsuit Claims Drug Has Fatal Flaws

Lawyers Blame Popular Wrinkle Remover for 11 Injuries, 4 Deaths; Drugmaker Allergan Cites Long Safety Record...

,,,In the lawsuit, lawyers representing the plaintiffs claim that Allergan, the maker of Botox, promotes "off label" use for treating patients with cerebral palsy and other conditions that have not been approved by the FDA. And, the lawsuit says, Allergan fails to warn Botox users properly of the possibility of fatal and life-threatening injuries from the injections.
The four deaths included two children and two adults, says Ray Chester, one of the attorneys bringing the lawsuit. "The two were children with cerebral palsy and they got very high doses to treat spasticity."...


From another article: ..This drug has only been approved for cosmetic uses and in the treatment of select medical indications that include cervical dystonia, Blepharospasm, Strabismus, and excessive underarm sweating. The FDA had warned users of adverse effects of Botox in February 2008...

Comments: Botox is often used as a part of our treatment for strabismus. As far as I know, no deaths have resulted from this....but our ophthalmological colleagues should probably proceed with caution.... DM

Meeting in Mexico

The Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional (Mexican Council on Behavioral Optometry) and OEP México will have the annual meeting in Morelia Michoacan México from September 12-15th. In this year we will honored with the presence of Drs. Larry Wallace, William Padula, Carl Hillier and Mexican Lecturers. For more information in http://www.comof.org

Premature Birth Linked to Some Unexpected Later Problems

...In the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, Norwegian researchers report that babies born prematurely are more likely to have cerebral palsy, mental retardation and to need to receive disability payments....More surprisingly, the researchers also found that when premature babies grew up, even if they had no identifiable disability, the youngest preemies were less likely to have a high income, more likely to be unemployed, more likely to receive Social Security benefits and less likely to become parents...

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to treat amblyopia

From AOA First Look:

Researchers use repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to treat amblyopia in adults.
MedPage Today (7/17, Gever) reported that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may transiently correct amblyopia ("lazy eye") in some adults, according to a study published in the July 22 issue of the journal Current Biology. In a small clinical trial, Robert F. Hess, Ph.D., D.Sc., of Canada's McGill University, and colleagues, found that the technique, "which induces weak electrical currents in the brain's outer cortex, produced brief but significant improvements in contrast sensitivity" in patients with amblyopia. For the trial, the researchers "tested two stimulation protocols. One involved frequencies of 1 Hz or less," and the "second used a 10-Hz frequency." The trial's "[p]articipants included nine amblyopic adults and five normal controls. All nine patients received the low-frequency stimulation, and six were also tested at the high-frequency." The team found that "high-frequency treatment increased contrast detection significantly for all patients." But, "in three patients who had successive treatment sessions separated by at least a week, the baseline sensitivity measurements did not change." The authors concluded that "the post-treatment improvements were not durable."
According to Canada's
CTV (7/18), "amblyopia is the most common form of vision impairment in one eye," affecting "as many as six million people in the United States alone." The condition "occurs when the muscles in one eye are not as strong, which causes poor sight in that eye, and makes it turn inward or outward." Children diagnosed with the condition "usually wear an eye patch over the good eye to build strength in the weaker eye. The treatment is often successful in children, but not so in adults." For years, "[d]octors have...believed that if the condition was not diagnosed well before the age of 12, it was untreatable, because the areas of the brain that control vision are not pliable." The new research, however, "suggests the adult visual cortex is, indeed, malleable."

Comments: VERY interesting.....I'm trying to get a copy of the article right now.... DM

Mood Lifters

Comments: I know this doesn't have much to do with children or special populations....but, hey...we can all use a mood lifter from time to time! DM

...Between balancing the desires of loved ones big and small, it's inevitable that you'll have your share of challenges. The key to getting through them? Come to your own emotional rescue. Even if you use only one of these easy techniques, you can stop a bad mood in its tracks and recharge....

Thursday, July 17, 2008

Research Uncovers Little-Known Impacts of Smell and Taste on Health

NIDCD-Supported Science to be Presented at International Chemical Senses Symposium in San Francisco

What:The senses of smell and taste may have greater bearing on health than is generally accepted by both doctors and patients. Recent research suggests that these senses and their influence on behavior have implications for nutrition, aging, mental health, obesity, diabetes and safety. Researchers supported by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), part of the National Institutes of Health, will be presenting their work at the International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste.

When:July 21-26, 2008

Where:Hyatt Regency Hotel at the Embarcadero, San Francisco

Study indicates premature birth may lead to medical problems in adulthood.

From AOA First Look...

USA Today (7/17, Szabo) reports that "very small or premature newborns are much more likely to have serious health problems, such as cerebral palsy," according to a study published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Dag Moster, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of Bergen, and colleagues, also say that the "less time spent in the womb, the greater a person's risk of having medical and social disabilities in adulthood,"
Bloomberg (7/17, Britt) adds. For the study, the researchers compared the "gestational age at birth with medical disabilities and mental abilities in adult life" of "903,402 children born in Norway between 1967 and 1983," who were followed "through compulsory national databases until 2003 when they were 20 to 36 years of age." The authors found that premature children "had a higher risk of being mentally retarded, having mental disorders such as epilepsy, and disabilities such as impaired vision and hearing." The researchers noted that "the fewer gestation weeks at birth, the greater the risk for disabilities and illness."
According to the authors, it was surprising to discover that "when premature babies grew up, even if they had no identifiable disability, the youngest preemies were less likely to have a high income, more likely to be unemployed, more likely to receive Social Security benefits, and less likely to become parents,"
HealthDay (7/16, Gordon) explained.
Focusing on some of the study's details,
WebMD (7/16, Warner) noted that the "rate of cerebral palsy was 0.1 percent for those born at term, vs. 9.1 percent among the earliest preemies born at 23 to 27 weeks." In addition, the "prevalence of mental retardation was 0.4 percent among full-term infants, compared with 4.4 percent among the most premature infants," while fewer "than two percent of full-term infants were receiving a disability pension as adults, vs. nearly 11 percent of the most premature infants."
Newsweek (7/16, Springen) reported that "nearly 13 percent of the more than four million babies born in the United States each year arrive prematurely -- which means moms deliver them earlier than 37 weeks into their pregnancies." This figure has increased "from 10.6 percent in 1990." This increase "is due, in part, to the boom in infertility treatments, which can increase the number of multiple births. Improved technology that keeps more premature babies alive is also a factor." MedPage Today (7/16, Neale) also covered the story.

Comments: These stories emphasize the importance of AOA programs such as InfantSee.....and the need for optometrists to work with special needs patients. (See Limited Research and Education on Special Populations in Optometry and Ophthalmology by Wes Sands, OD; Marc Taub, OD, FAAO; Dominick M. Maino, OD, MEd, FAAO, FCOVD-A .... for info on how we are NOT getting the word out about special populations....but need to do so.). If you are not an InfantSee provider, become one. If you have not taken a course in the diagnosis and management of infants and other special populations do so immediately. DM

Survey of parents on the use of naturopathic medicine in children—Characteristics and reasons

...This cross-sectional study assessed the sociodemographic characteristics of families whose children used naturopathic medicine, the reasons for use, and whether naturopathic and conventional medicine were combined in treating children's conditions. Data were collected in British Columbia, Alberta and Ontario, Canada. Ninety-eight completed questionnaires were analyzed. The results showed that participants (parents) were most likely to be females, university educated, had household income >$60,000, and also saw a naturopathic doctor for themselves. The most common conditions for which children saw a naturopathic doctor included allergies, digestive problems and skin problems, and the most important reasons for use included using all possible options and having a more holistic approach to care. Most parents reported combining naturopathic and conventional care for their children. Study limitations, in particular, selection bias, were discussed....

Comments: As far as I know, naturopathic medicine, has not been shown to be particularly effective for most anomalies a child/adult might experience. Having said that I have not done a literature search on the topic lately. Anyone more up to date on this?DM

Prescribing rates for the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug Ritalin vary widely

...Official statistics show a 23-fold difference between the lowest and highest prescribing areas....

Revealed: How men and women really do have different brains

...For a long time it was thought that the basic architecture of the brain was the same in both sexes, with behavioural differences between men and women put down to hormones and social pressures. But now an increasing amount of evidence is suggesting that male and female brains are built from significantly different genetic blueprints....

Comments: My wife has known this for decades! She's always said I was different! DM

Neurodevelopment in Children with Albinism

Most children with albinism have normal neurologic development despite visual impairment and increased prevalence of ADHD.

Comments: It's been shown that kids with ADHD tend to have CI and kids with CI tend to have attentional issues....do children with albinism have CI? DM

Lighthouse International Online Continuing Education Courses

Lighthouse International Online Continuing Education Courses - the most convenient way to get the CE credits you need!

Webinars are quick, easy, and convenient ways for you to earn the CEcredits you need right at your own desk. All you need is access tothe Internet to take them when and where you want!

REGISTER NOW for The Child-Friendly Low Vision Exam to learn about how to most effectively examine children in the 0-5 age group.

WEB 5: The Child-Friendly Low Vision Exam

July 25, 2008: 12 - 1pm EST
Presented by: Michael Fischer, ODTuition: $60

Can't make it on the day the live webinar is presented? Register foran archived version and take it any time you'd like!

Questions? Call us at (800) 829-0500 or (212) 821-9470.
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Tuesday, July 15, 2008

Mesoblast Limited Announce Pre-Clinical Trials Show Allogenic Stem Cells Effectively Treat Eye Diseases

Australia's regenerative medicine company, Mesoblast Limited (ASX:MSB; USOTC: MBLTY), announced highly significant preclinical trial results of the adult stem cell technology platform for the treatment of eye diseases associated with abnormal blood vessels. These diseases include diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading causes of blindness in the western world.

Comments: Please note that this could just be hype....this data was release pre-clinical trial. DM

Head-to-Head Study Demonstrates Focalin(R) XR Offers Faster And Better Symptom Control Than Concerta(R)1 In Early Part Of ADHD Patients' Day

A head-to-head study, published in the June Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, confirms that Focalin(R) XR (dexmethylphenidate HCl) extended-release capsules offer greater improvements in managing symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder compared with Concerta(R) (d,l- methylphenidate HCl) extended-release tablets at two hours post-dose, the primary study endpoint.

Protein On 'Speed' Linked To ADHD

A genetic change in the dopamine transporter - one of the brain's dopamine-handling proteins - makes it behave as if amphetamine is present and "run backward," Vanderbilt University Medical Center investigators report this week in The Journal of Neuroscience.

The Older Brain on Drugs: Substances That May Cause Cognitive Impairment

Alcohol, recreational drugs, over-the-counter, and prescription medications may cause a range of cognitive impairments from confusion to delirium, and may even mimic dementia

History of the Autism-MMR Hypothesis - Part I

...Ten years ago, in 1998, Andrew Wakefield and 12 others published a paper that suggested that a vaccine called the MMR (measles mumps and rubella) had a link with a new condition they described as giving kids bowel problems and autism....The UK media went crazy, falling over themselves to report on the MMR vaccine causing autism. There was a televised news conference with Wakefield and a video news release set up by the hospital Wakefield worked at....What wasn’t widely reported was that this wasn’t the first vaccine related paper Wakefield had written. In 1995 he co-authored a paper saying that there was a possible link between bowel diseases such as Crohn’s and vaccines....

Comments: Ever wonder how vaccines first got linked with autism? This article may give you some insight. You will find that this initial link between autism and vaccines certainly does not pass the "smell" test. Be skeptical, very skeptical...DM

Brain Blogger

One of my readers asked me to check out Brain Blogger....and it appears to be an outstanding resource for those of us involved in working with individuals with acquired/traumatic brain injury. Click on the title above to learn more. I will also list it as one of my prefered blogs to the left. DM

Monday, July 14, 2008

Color naming deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retinal dopaminergic hypothesis

Background
Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) have unexplained difficulties on tasks requiring speeded processing of colored stimuli. Color vision mechanisms, particularly short-wavelength (blue-yellow) pathways, are highly sensitive to various diseases, toxins and drugs that alter dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, slow color processing might reflect subtle impairments in the perceptual encoding stage of stimulus color, which arise from hypodopaminergic functioning.


Presentation of hypotheses
1) Color perception of blue-yellow (but not red-green) stimuli is impaired in ADHD as a result of deficient retinal dopamine; 2) Impairments in the blue-yellow color mechanism in ADHD contribute to poor performance on speeded color naming tasks that include a substantial proportion of blue-yellow stimuli; and 3) Methylphenidate increases central dopamine and is also believed to increase retinal dopamine, thereby normalizing blue-yellow color perception, which in turn improves performance on the speeded color naming tasks.


Testing the hypothesis
Requires three approaches, including:1) direct assessment of color perception in individuals with ADHD to determine whether blue-yellow color perception is selectively impaired; 2) determination of relationship between performance on neuropsychological tasks requiring speeded color processing and color perception; and 3) randomized, controlled pharmacological intervention with stimulant medication to examine the effects of enhancing central dopamine on color perception and task performance


Implications of hypothesis
If substantiated, the findings of color perception problems would necessitate a re-consideration of current neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, guide psycho-education, academic instruction, and require consideration of stimulus color in many of the widely used neuropsychological tests.

Multimedia Program for Training of Vision of Children with Visual Impairment

...Then the advantages of multimedia software in training the vision of partially sighted children are discussed. Three multimedia programs are described that can be used to train the vision of children with visual impairment....

Can the Bruckner test be used as a rapid screening test to detect significant refractive errors in children?

Purpose: To assess the suitability of Brückner test as a screening test to detect significant refractive errors in children. Materials and Methods: A pediatric ophthalmologist prospectively observed the size and location of pupillary crescent on Brückner test as hyperopic, myopic or astigmatic. This was compared with the cycloplegic refraction. Detailed ophthalmic examination was done for all. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Brückner test were determined for the defined cutoff levels of ametropia. Results: Ninety-six subjects were examined. Mean age was 8.6 years (range 1 to 16 years). Brückner test could be completed for all; the time taken to complete this test was 10 seconds per subject. The ophthalmologist identified 131 eyes as ametropic, 61 as emmetropic. The Brückner test had sensitivity 91%, specificity 72.8%, positive predictive value 85.5% and negative predictive value 83.6%. Of 10 false negatives four had compound hypermetropic astigmatism and three had myopia. Conclusions: Brückner test can be used to rapidly screen the children for significant refractive errors. The potential benefits from such use may be maximized if programs use the test with lower crescent measurement cutoffs, a crescent measurement ruler and a distance fixation target.

Genetic aspects of strabismus

Purpose: To evaluate the genetic aspects of strabismus. Methods: Ophthalmic and orthoptic evaluations were performed prospectively on 110 strabismic probands and 478 relatives. We used 3 different criteria in the diagnosis of strabismus: primary diagnosis (dx1) defined as any manifest horizontal or vertical deviation, a secondary diagnosis (dx2) including esophoria (>7 prism diopters) or exophoria (>9 prism diopters), and a tertiary diagnosis (dx3) including abnormal fusional amplitudes, accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio, and/or stereopsis; monofixation syndrome; 4 prism diopters base out; and/or abnormal Maddox test responses. Analyses were carried out within mating types. Results: Hypotheses of autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance with no sporadics were rejected. Based on the dx1, 25% of the families had more than one individual affected and there was vertical transmission in 13%; adding dx2 there were 36% of the families with more than one affected and 21% had vertical transmission; and adding dx3, there were 73% with more than one affected and 51% with vertical transmission. Conclusions: There is evidence for a pattern consistent with an autosomal dominant form of strabismus in most families.

Clinical characteristics of spontaneous late-onset comitant acute nonaccommodative esotropia in children

...Purpose: To describe the clinical characteristics of spontaneous, late-onset comitant acute, nonaccommodative esotropia (ANAET) in children. Materials and Methods: Clinical characteristics of a cohort of patients under 16 years of age with ANAET were studied retrospectively. Results: Of 15 patients eight were females. Mean age was 7.15 years (range 2.5-13, SD 3.34). Mean age of the onset of deviation was 3.2 years (range 1.5-9, SD 2.26). Mean duration of strabismus was 36 months (range 3-132, SD 43). History of a precipitating event was present in five patients (33.3%). Mean cycloplegic refraction was 1.84 diopter sphere (range -5.75 to +7.25, SD 3.55). Mean esodeviation for near and distance fixation was 40 prism diopter (range 15-90, SD 23.9). None had near/distance disparity of more than 5 prism diopter. Amblyopia was present in 13 cases (87%). Strabismus surgery was performed for eight patients. Five patients had orthophoria and three were aligned within 8 prisms esodeviation. Conclusion: ANAET is more common than previously reported, has a variable time of onset and high incidence of amblyopia. Timely management would avert emergence of amblyopia and vertical incomitance thereby promising better binocular outcome....

Comments: Click on title for full article. DM

Asperger Syndrome: A Primer For Behavioral Interventionists

Children and adolescents with Asperger Syndrome are intellectually capable, rigid and often
obsessive, adhere to stereotypic routines, demonstrate difficulties with pragmatic language and characteristically lack social skills. While the extent of these behaviors may wax and wane and vary byindividual, they are in stark contrast with the high level of intellectual function seen in children and adolescents with this disorder. This primer will examine: the features of Asperger Syndrome, the theories which help explain the nature of the disorder, its comorbidity with other disorders, and the strategies that can impact positively on social skill development. The role that significant others in the environment (parents, teachers, clinicians and trained peers) can play in implementing these social skill strategies is also an area of focus.


Comments: Full article available by clicking on title. DM

Neurobiology of autism: An update

Consideration of available studies suggests that many cases of autism are caused by a neurodevelopmental disorder. In other cases, a known disease entity is found, either during life or at autopsy. A common factor linking primary idiopathic autism with double syndrome cases having autistic behavior may be malfunction in specific neuroanatomic systems, defects in which give rise to the clinically defined autistic symptomatology. The available evidence suggests that the limbic system is abnormal in most cases of autism, and that the hippocampus, basal forebrain, cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices are specifically involved. Evidence for neocortical involvement is less strong; additional investigations will be necessary to define the role of neocortical pathology observed in some, but not all, individuals with autism. Similarly, the role of the thalamus and hypothalamus and their subdivisions needs to be better defined. The role of the cerebellum in the causation of autistic symptoms is controversial. However, the consistency of the findings of the Boston group suggest that additional study, especially studies focused on the connections of the cerebellum to the diencephalic and telencephalic structures, is warranted. The evidence, then, suggests that autism is a disorder of connectivity, often but not exclusively arising during the gestational period and ongoing degeneration of involved neural systems may occur in some individuals. Since different investigators, who study different populations of autistic individuals, have found involvement of multiple neuroanatomic sites, neural network(s) may be involved in pathogenesis of this complex behavior. A defect at any point in the network could produce autistic behavior, and differences in the specific network defect between individuals might account for observed differences in clinical phenotype. The recent identification of abnormalities in serotonin synthesis in autistic individuals suggests that serotonergic systems are likely.

Comments: The complete article is available by clicking on the title above. DM

Saccadic movements using eye-tracking technology in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: pilot study

...The results suggest differences in strategies that PDD explore human picture. Moreover, these strategies seem not to be affected by the lack of expected part of the face (the eyes). ...

Comments: Complete text available by clicking on title above. Dm

Inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning in autism spectrum disorders with and without comorbid ADHD-symptoms

...Our findings replicate previous results reporting impairment of ADHD children in inhibition and working memory tasks and of ASD children in planning and flexibility abilities. The ASD + group showed similarities to the ADHD group with regard to inhibitory but not to working memory deficits. Nevertheless the heterogeneity of these and previous results shows that EF assessment is not useful for differential diagnosis between ADHD and ASD. It might be useful for evaluating strengths and weaknesses in individual children....

Comments: Full text of article available by clicking on title above. DM

Clinical heterogeneity among people with high functioning autism spectrum conditions: evidence favouring a continuous severity gradient

...These results are consistent with a unitary spectrum model, suggesting that the clinical heterogeneity observed in those with an autistic spectrum condition at the higher-IQ end of the spectrum is associated with a gradient in the overall severity of the ASC rather than with the presence of different specific symptom profiles in different individuals. The implications of this for genetic research are considered....

Comments: Full text of article available by clicking on title above.

Testability of the Retinomax Autorefractor and IOLMaster in Preschool Children The Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study

...Young children can be reliably tested for ocular biometry with the Retinomax and IOLMaster devices. This may impact strategies for management of cataracts and refractive errors in preschool children....

The prevalence of patients with ocular genetic disorders attending a general paediatric ophthalmology clinic in the East End of London

...Ocular genetic disorders are common in secondary care. Less than a third of patients with such disorders had a family history of consanguinity. The proportion of patients with proven autosomal recessive disease was similar irrespective of consanguinity within family. The proportion of children of South Asian ancestry was high in this clinic population....

Epocrates for IPhone

I use Epocrates with my Treo 680 everyday. It's fast, accurate and easy to use. There is even a free version.....So if you have an IPhone ... you just might want to try this out...DM

"iPocrates" is here

We are excited to announce the highly anticipated launch of Epocrates Rx® software for the iPhone and iPod® touch. Click the title above to download your favorite drug and formulary reference, featuring pill pictures and a drug identification tool.

Computer Vision Syndrome

...According to a recent survey by American Optometric Association, computers and handheld devices causes eye problems for more than 40% of Americans...

Doctor dismisses link of autism to vaccines

...Some parents suspect that thimerosal, a mercury compound used as a preservative in certain vaccines, triggers autism sometime after the age of 1 (MMR — measles, mumps and rubella — vaccines do not contain thimerosal). Even without a scientific link, thimerosal has been removed or reduced to trace amounts for all immunizations given to children age 6 or younger. Since then, the prevalence of autism among children has actually gone up.Maxim said the correlation between the age children are vaccinated — between 1 and 3 — and the age of onset for autism — between 12 and 24 months — leads parents to link the two. But in this case, correlation does not imply causation, she says, and a child not immunized faces increased health risks."This is a public health danger," Maxim said. "While there is no proof that vaccines can cause autism, there is proof that not giving vaccines can cause devastating brain diseases. The risks far outweigh the benefits."...

Ferris on track to get optometry building funds

..."It is impossible to serve client needs and expand the program without this new facility," said Dr. Mark Swan, chief of pediatrics and binocular vision services for FSU's Michigan College of Optometry. ...

Comments: Congratulations to my colleagues in Michigan! Good luck with the new building. DM

Eye care for Illinois' Children...

A story about my friend....Janet Hughes....and how she (almost) single handedly brought eye care to the kids of Illinois....

When Janet Hughes of Lemont prepared her daughter, Amy, for kindergarten in 2001, she followed everything in the school’s registration packet — vaccinations, a health and dental exam and a long school supply list.... But when Hughes took her daughter for an eye examination the following year, Amy was diagnosed with something her mandated vision screening at school had missed — a high refractive error with large amounts of astigmatism.
“I was shocked,” Hughes said. “My daughter had been working 10 times harder than she needed to because she did not have glasses. If the screening missed my daughter, how many others had it missed?”


...another story about this can be found here http://www.southtownstar.com/news/1052429,071308eyeexams.article

Visual Impairment & People with Learning Disabilities (Intellectual Disabilitiy/Mental Retardation)

...A literature review by the Valuing People Support Team found people with learning disabilities to be between 8.5 and 200 times more likely to have a visual impairment compared to the general population.
In March 2006, the Down Syndrome Medical Interest Group reported a high incidence of ocular disorder among people with Down's syndrome:
• Refractive errors and/or squint often present from an early age,
• Cataract and/or glaucoma occurring in infancy,
• Nystagmus present in at least 10% of the DS population.
• Keratoconus more common in adolescents and young adults ....

Comments: This is a brief review of oculo-visual problems in individuals with intellectual disabilities (formerly known as Mental Retardation....and in the UK now known as "learning disabilities"). For a brief report it is OK. It makes some recommendations I disagree with (i.e. once an individual is 45 y/o they only need to see an eyecare professional once every 5 years .... no...they should be seen 1/yr...especially as they become older). DM

Sunday, July 13, 2008

Nepal Optometry Students Society

Nepal Optometry Students Society, NOSS is going to publish its annual
official journal, THE SIGHT. The journal will be purely scientific and
elaborative to eye health profession and is planned to be distributed all
over country and world wide, soft copy will also be available on our web
www.optometrynepal.org.np/noss.

So, kindly we would like to request you for helping us providing your
valuable scholarly articles related to eye and vision care and their latest
advances, as you are renowned professor of pioneer college of optometry

in the world. Articles bridging ocular health and other allied health sciences
are heartily welcomed!
Hope you will not disappoint us.
Deadline for article submission: 4th August 2008 (20th Shrawan 2065 BS)
Previous issue is attached herewith.

Mail to:
nossnepal@gmail.com

ravinems@gmail.com

Hearing from You,
Ravindra

--
Should you have any queries about Nepal Optometry Students' Society, I would be rather obliged to you to satisfy them!
Adhikary Ravindra
The Secretary, 7th Ex. Body
Nepal Optometry Students' Society, NOSS
P.O. Box: 8750
B. P. Koirala Lions Centre for Ophthalmic Studies
Tribhuwan University Teaching Hospital
Kathmandu,Nepal
Phone no:0977-1-4720694/695

--
Should you have any queries about Nepal Optometry Students' Society, I would be rather obliged to you to satisfy them!
Adhikary Ravindra
The Secretary, 7th Ex. Body
Nepal Optometry Students' Society, NOSS
P.O. Box: 8750
B. P. Koirala Lions Centre for Ophthalmic Studies
Tribhuwan University Teaching Hospital
Kathmandu,Nepal
Phone no:0977-1-4720694/695 --- Scanned by M+ Guardian Messaging Firewall -